Catheter procedures are much easier on patients than surgery. They involve only a needle puncture in the skin where the catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted into a vein or an artery. Doctors don't have to surgically open the chest or operate directly on the heart to repair the defect(s). This means that recovery may be easier and quicker.The use of catheter procedures has increased a lot in the past 20 years. They have become the preferred way to repair many simple heart defects, such as atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and pulmonary and aortic valve stenosis.For A DEVICE CLOSURE repair, the doctor inserts a catheter into a vein in the groin (upper thigh). He or she threads the tube to the heart's septum. A device made up of two small disks or an umbrella-like device is attached to the catheter.When the catheter reaches the septum, the device is pushed out of the catheter. The device is placed so that it plugs the hole between the atria. It's secured in place and the catheter is withdrawn from the body.Within 6 months, normal tissue grows in and over the device. The closure device does not need to be replaced as the child grows. For valve stenosis, the doctor inserts a catheter into a vein and threads it to the heart's pulmonary valve. A tiny balloon at the end of the catheter is quickly inflated to push apart the leaflets, or "doors," of the valve.Then, the balloon is deflated and the catheter and ballon are withdrawn. This procedure can be used to repair any narrowed valve in the heart.To help guide the catheter, doctors often use echocardiography (echo), transesophageal echo (TEE), and angiography.